Australian advocates are at odds over whether the act of international parental kidnapping (IPK) should carry criminal or strictly civil consequences.  Opponents argue that criminalizing IPK may confound conciliation efforts and cause abductors to take more extreme measures to conceal kids.  Proponents argue that criminal consequences deter parental kidnapping and serve as a critical tool for recovering abducted kids, particularly where the countries involved are not bound under the 1980 Hague Abduction Convention.  READ MORE: Tough kid-snatcher laws could backfire, The Australian: National Affairs (July 25, 2011).