Japanese officials have begun to draft implementing legislation and fashion infrastructure that will enable Japan to comply with the requirements of the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. Although Japan has decided that it will ratify the treaty, experts predict that the ratification will not be imminent. Special attention is being placed on designing domestic legal provisions to guide adjudication of Hague return cases involving Japanese mothers who assert the Article 13(b) grave risk defense, on the basis that they abducted their children to flee domestic violence. READ MORE: Hague treaty seeks to balance rights of kids, parents, Japan Times (June 7, 2011).